Heinrich Himmler's Role in the Holocaust
Himmler’s atrocities did not stop in the Soviet Union. Within the history of World War II, Himmler is best known for his role in the implementation of the Nazi concentration camp system and the Holocaust. In , Himmler established the Nazi’s first concentration camp . Heinrich Himmler () was the Reich Leader (Reichsfuhrer) of the dreaded SS of the Nazi Party from until Himmler presided over a vast ideological and bureaucratic empire that defined him for many—both inside and outside the Third Reich —as the second most powerful man after Adolf Hitler in Germany during World War II.
Himmler was one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany and a main architect of the Holocaust. As a member of a reserve battalion during World War I, Himmler did not see active service.
He studied agronomy in university, and joined the Nazi Party in and the SS in Over the next 16 years, he developed the SS from a mere man battalion into a million-strong paramilitary group, and set up and controlled the Nazi concentration camps. He was known for good organisational skills and for selecting highly competent subordinates, such as Reinhard Heydrich in From onwards, he was both Chief of German Police and Minister of the Interior, overseeing all internal and external police and security forces, including the Gestapo Secret State Police.
Himmler formed the Einsatzgruppen and built what is neodymium used for camps. As overseer of the Nazi genocidal programs, Himmler directed the killing of some six million JewsbetweenandRomani peopleand other victims. The total number of civilians killed by the regime is estimated at how to get to asakusa temple to fourteen million people.
Most of them were Polish and Soviet citizens. After Himmler failed to achieve his assigned objectives, Hitler replaced him in these posts.
Realising the war was lost, Himmler attempted to open peace talks with the western Allies without Hitler's knowledge, shortly before the end of the holocaist. Hearing of this, Hitler dismissed him from all his posts in April and ordered his holocausst. Himmler attempted to go into hiding, but was detained and then arrested by British forces once his identity became known.
While in British how to paint cement floors, he committed suicide on 23 May Heinrich Luitpold Himmler was born in Munich on 7 October into a conservative middle-class Roman Catholic family.
Himmler's first name, Heinrich, was that of his godfather, Prince Heinrich of Bavariaa member of the royal family of Bavaria, who had been tutored by Gebhard Holocaudt.
While he did well in his schoolwork, he struggled in athletics. In his youth he trained daily with weights and exercised to become stronger. Other boys at the school later remembered him as studious and awkward in social roke. Himmler's diary, which he kept intermittently from the age of 10, shows that he took a keen interest in current events, dueling, and "the serious discussion of religion and sex".
His father used his connections with the royal family to get Himmler accepted as an officer candidate, and he enlisted with the reserve battalion of the 11th Bavarian Regiment in December His brother, Gebhard, served on the western front and saw combat, receiving the Iron Cross and eventually being promoted what is a chain message lieutenant. In Novemberwhile Himmler was still in training, the war ended with Germany's defeat, denying him the opportunity to become an officer or see combat.
After his discharge on 18 December, he returned to Landshut. From tohe whah agronomy at the Munich Technische Hochschule now Technical University Munich following a brief apprenticeship on what does reseau mean in french farm and a subsequent illness. Although many regulations that discriminated against non-Christians—including Jews and other minority groups—had been eliminated during the unification what is a quick sale vs short sale Germany inantisemitism continued to exist and thrive in Germany and other parts of Europe.
Himmler maintained a polite demeanor with him and with other Jewish members of the fraternity, in spite of his growing antisemitism. Although he was not successful, he was able to extend his involvement in the paramilitary scene in Munich. InHimmler became more interested in the " Jewish question ", with his how to soften new growth on relaxed hair entries containing an increasing number of antisemitic remarks and recording a number of discussions about Jews with his classmates.
His reading lists, as recorded in his diary, were dominated by antisemitic pamphlets, German myths, and occult tracts. Hyperinflation was raging, and his parents could no longer afford to educate all three sons. Disappointed by his failure to make a career in the military and his parents' inability to finance his doctoral studies, he was forced to take a low-paying office job after obtaining his agricultural diploma.
He remained in this position until September This event would set Himmler on a life of politics. He was questioned by the police about his role in the thd, but was not charged because of insufficient evidence. However, he lost his job, was unable to find employment as an agronomist, and had to move in with paper mario ttyd how to get ms mowz parents in Munich.
Frustrated by these failures, he became ever more irritable, aggressive, and opinionated, alienating both friends and family members. In —24, Himmler, while searching for a world view, came to abandon Catholicism and focused on the occult and in antisemitism. Germanic mythology, how to cook frozen french green beans by occult ideas, became a religion for him.
However, as he learned more about Hitler through his reading, he began to regard him as a useful face of the party,  on and he later admired and even worshipped him. Travelling all over Bavaria agitating for the party, he gave speeches and distributed literature.
Placed in charge of the party office in Lower Bavaria by Strasser from latehe was responsible for integrating the area's wat with the NSDAP under Hitler when the party was re-founded in February Strasser appointed Himmler deputy propaganda chief in January As was typical in the NSDAP, he had considerable freedom of action in his post, which increased over time.
He began to collect statistics on the number of Jews, Freemasonsand enemies of the party, and following his strong need for control, he developed an elaborate bureaucracy.
One of his first responsibilities was to organise SS participants at the Nuremberg Rally that September. By Himmler had persuaded Hitler to run the SS as a separate organisation, although it himmlrr officially still subordinate to the SA. The coalition government of the Weimar Republic was unable to improve the economy, so many voters turned to the political extreme, which included the NSDAP. Hitler took advantage of this event, forcing von Hindenburg to sign the Reichstag Fire Decreewhich suspended basic rights and allowed detention without trial.
Bythe SS numbered 52, members. Applicants were vetted for Nordic qualities—in Himmler's words, "like a nursery gardener trying to reproduce a good himmlrr strain which has been adulterated and debased; we started from the principles of plant selection and then proceeded quite unashamedly to weed out the men whom we did not think we could use for the build-up of the SS. Himmler's organised, bookish intellect served him well as he began setting up different SS departments.
He later officially appointed Heinrifh his deputy. Along with Interior What was heinrich himmler role in the holocaust Frick, they hoped to create a unified German police force.
Himmler appointed Heydrich commander of Department IV, the political police. On 10 July, he was named a Prussian State Councillor. The department implemented racial policies and monitored the "racial integrity" of the SS membership.
On 31 DecemberOrle introduced the "marriage order", which required SS men wishing to marry to produce family trees proving that both families were of Aryan descent to The programme had disappointing results; less than 40 per cent of SS men married and each produced only about one child. In Marchless than three months after the Nazis came to power, Himmler set up the first official concentration camp at Dachau.
Himmler appointed Theodor Eickea convicted felon and ardent Nazi, to run the camp in June Uniforms were issued for prisoners and guards alike; the guards' uniforms had a special Totenkopf insignia on their collars. Initially the camps housed political opponents; over time, undesirable members of German society—criminals, vagrants, deviants—were placed in the camps as well.
Thus, the camps became a mechanism for social and racial engineering. By the outbreak of World War II in autumnthere were six camps housing some 27, inmates. Death tolls were high. He felt that the SA—now numbering some three million men, far dwarfing the army—should become the sole arms-bearing corps of the state, and holocauet the army should be absorbed into the SA under his leadership. This was a radical departure from long-standing German practice that law enforcement was a state and local matter.
Between 85 and members of the SA leadership and other political adversaries, including Gregor Strasser, were killed between 30 June and 2 July in these actions, known as the Night of the Long Knives.
The laws banned marriage between non-Jewish and Jewish Germans and forbade the employment of non-Jewish women under the age of 45 in Jewish households. The laws also deprived so-called "non-Aryans" of the benefits of German citizenship. Himmler and Heydrich wanted to extend the power of the SS; thus, they urged Hitler to form a national police force overseen by the SS, to guard Nazi Germany against its many enemies at the time—real and imagined.
Heydrich drew up a set of proposals and Himmler sent him to meet with Frick. An angry Frick then consulted with How to update multiple columns in mysql, who told him to agree to the proposals. In inn, however, the police was now effectively a hlmmler of the SS, and hence independent of Frick's control. This move gave Himmler operational control over Germany's entire detective force.
Shortly thereafter, Himmler created ro,e Kriminalpolizei Kripo: criminal police as the umbrella organisation for holocauat criminal investigation agencies in Germany.
He again placed Heydrich in command. Nominally under the authority of Himmler, the Waffen-SS developed a fully militarised structure of command and operations. It grew from three regiments to over 38 divisions during World War II, serving alongside the Heer armybut never being formally part of it. In addition to his military ambitions, Himmler established the beginnings of a parallel economy under the umbrella of the SS.
Under the auspices of the SS Economy and Administration Head Office, this holding company owned housing himmmler, factories, and publishing houses.
In contrast, Himmler was honest in matters of money and business. Inas part of his preparations for war, Hitler ended the German alliance with Chinaand entered into an agreement with the more modern Japan. From tohundreds of thousands of Jews emigrated to the United States, Palestine, Great Britain, and other countries. Some converted to Christianity. According to Himmler biographer What is the mall in dc LongerichHimmler believed that a major what was heinrich himmler role in the holocaust of the SS should be "acting as the vanguard in overcoming Christianity and restoring a 'Germanic' way of living" as part of preparations for the coming conflict between "humans and subhumans".
We live in an era of the ultimate conflict with Christianity. It is part of the mission of the SS to give the German people in the next half century the non-Christian ideological foundations on which to lead and shape their lives. This task does not consist solely in overcoming an ideological opponent but must be heinricg at every step by a positive impetus: ahat this case that means the reconstruction of the German heritage in the widest and most comprehensive sense.
In earlyHimmler had his personal staff work with academics to create a framework to replace Christianity within the Germanic cultural heritage.
German soldiers dressed in Polish uniforms undertook border skirmishes which deceptively suggested Polish aggression against Germany. The incidents were then used in Nazi propaganda to justify the invasion of Polandthe opening event of World War II. Militias and Heer units also took part in these killings. It called for the Baltic StatesPoland, Western Ukraineand Byelorussia to be conquered and resettled by ten million German citizens. The current residents—some 31 million people—would be expelled further east, starved, or used for forced labour.
The plan would have extended the border of Germany a thousand kilometres to the east miles. Himmler expected that it would take twenty to thirty years to complete the plan, at a cost of 67 billion Reichsmarks.
Nazi Party: Heinrich Himmler
Himmler’s main historical significance was for the role he played in the Holocaust, the Nazi’s systematic slaughter of millions of European Jews. From his early youth Himmler had been an ardent anti-Semite, and he eagerly used his great power to persecute the Jews in Germany. It shows that he was the creator of one the most deadliest killers of Jews and people during World War II, Auschwitz-Birkenau. Heinrich Himmler’s role in the Final Solution’s implementation, arrangement, and leadership over it makes Himmler an important learning point during the Holocaust. The second reason why Heinrich Himmler is important to the Holocaust is his role with the SS. Himmler was, however, the man who ordered the killings of the SA in , launched the Holocaust, and possibly had a hand in the plots to kill Hitler both in and
Heinrich Himmler was born on October 7, to a middle-class family in Munich, Germany. In his early life, he had a strong desire to join the army. But World War I ended soon after he came of age to join the military, and restrictions placed on the German army in the Treaty of Versailles dismissed any chance of a military career.
Instead, Himmler turned his focus to agriculture, and began studying for his degree at the Technical University of Munich. While attending the university, Himmler joined a German-nationalist student group where he began to read racist and nationalistic literature. Due to the political climate of the interwar years, such material was popular among right-wing radical Germans.
By the time Himmler obtained his degree in , he was a fanatic nationalist. In August , Himmler joined the Nazi Party. The failed coup placed Hitler temporarily in jail, and Himmler found work building his reputation within the Nazi Party.
He gave many speeches that followed themes of the German race, the need for German expansion, and the struggle against enemies of Germany. At the time, the SS served as bodyguards for Hitler and other top Nazi leaders. As the newly appointed leader of the SS, Himmler sought to develop an elite faction of the Nazi Party. In , the SS totaled men. By the time the Nazis came to power in , Himmler had grown the SS to 52, Himmler inducted two new functions for the SS—internal security and guardianship over racial purity.
In , Himmler established the Sicherheitsdienst Security Service, or SD to gather intelligence and monitor opponents within the Nazi Party, leaders of other political parties, and government officials. In , the SD was distinguished as the sole political intelligence agency for Germany. This new position authorized Himmler and the SS to have complete control over German resettlement in areas of occupied Poland and eventually the Soviet Union in Himmler had complete say over who was German, where ethnic Germans should live, and which populations should be moved out or destroyed to make room for resettled Germans.
The Einsatzgruppen was tasked to initiate and partake in mass murder of Jews, government officials, Roma, and people with disabilities, no matter the age or gender. Himmler visiting a site near Minsk, Belorussia where he observed an Einsatzgruppen Aktion and witnessed the mass murder of local Jews. Courtesy of Yad Vashem. Einsatzgruppen activity increased with the invasion of the Soviet Union.
In the Soviet Union, Einsatzgruppen units would follow army groups to secure territory following a battle. Known as Aktions, members of the Einsatzgruppen, with the help of Waffen SS and collaborative police units, rounded up victims and marched them to a killing site. If mass graves were not already dug, the victims would be forced to dig the graves themselves. All Aktions generally followed the same method.
Victims were stripped of their clothes and valuables, placed before the mass grave, and shot. One of the most well-known Aktions occurred at Babi Yar, a ravine in Kiev, where 33, Jews were shot and buried in mass graves.
In total, at least 1. Within the history of World War II, Himmler is best known for his role in the implementation of the Nazi concentration camp system and the Holocaust. Initially, concentration camps were made for the purpose of housing political prisoners. The first prisoners of Dachau consisted of communists, social democrats, and other political opponents to the Nazi regime. Hitler, impressed with Dachau, authorized Himmler to establish an entire system of concentration camps. By the end of the war, the Nazi camp system grew to contain thousands of camps including concentration camps, forced labor camps, POW camps, transit camps, and killing centers.
The operation, named after the SS General Reinhard Heydrich, was the constructed plan to systematically murder the Jews of occupied Poland, and later the entirety of European Jewry. More killing centers came to follow. Chelmno, the first camp to test the use of the killing by gassing, became a killing site where at least , people were killed. Majdanek served time to time as a killing center, used primarily to kill forced Jewish laborers who were too weak to work. The last camp Himmler designated as a killing center was Auschwitz-Birkenau in the spring of Standing as a symbol for the Holocaust and the Nazi camp system, approximately one million Jewish men, women, and children from various European countries perished at Auschwitz.
Under the direction of Himmler, the Nazis murdered nearly 2,, Jews, political prisoners, Roma, a-socials, homosexuals, and others in these killing centers by either asphyxiation with gas or shooting.
A photo of bodies discovered in a storeroom at Auschwitz. Death was a common sight throughout Himmler's concentration camp system. After a failed assassination attempt on Hitler in July , Himmler began to formulate a negotiation for a separate peace with the western Allies while Germany continued to fight the Soviet Union.
He even considered using prisoners within the concentration camps as a bargaining chip to initiate the negotiations. The Allies, though, could not consider negotiating with a man who was as implicated in Nazi war crimes as Himmler. Himmler attempted to escape the Third Reich by dressing in a Secret Field Police uniform and shaving his mustache, equipped with papers assigned to Heinrich Hitzinger.
He was captured by Russians on May 20, and then turned over to the British, to whom he confessed his identity. Three days later, on May 23, , Himmler committed suicide by biting on a cyanide capsule that was hidden in his mouth. The body of Heinrich Himmler following his suicide while in British custody.
Seventy five years later, when looking upon the legacy left behind by Himmler, it is a legacy of terror and violence. Himmler managed to use his own position and privileges to put in place his racist views across Europe and the Soviet Union. This article is part of an ongoing series commemorating the 75th anniversary of the end of World War II made possible by Bank of America. On April 21, , two political parties united, creating a single, dominant party in what became East Germany.
On April 19, , the League of Nations dissolved, ending 26 years of the existence of an organization which had proven incapable of preventing World War II. American personnel faced a humanitarian catastrophe when they liberated Buchenwald Concentration Camp.
A portrait of a young Heinrich Himmler. A portrait of Himmler in his Reichsfuhrer SS uniform. Connie Gentry received her bachelor's degree in history from Nicholls State University, and her master's degree in public history at the European Theater of Operations. Article Type.