East Timor (/-? t i? m ??r / ()) or Timor-Leste (/ t i ? m ??r ? l ? ? t e? /; Tetum: Timor Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (Portuguese: Republica Democratica de Timor-Leste, Tetum: Republika Demokratika Timor-Leste), is an island country in Southeast Asia. It comprises the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco. Geography. East Timor is bounded by the Timor Sea to the southeast, the Wetar Strait to the north, the Ombai Strait to the northwest, and western Timor (part of the Indonesian province of East Nusa Tenggara) to the chesapeakecharge.com eastern part of Timor island is rugged, with the mountains rising to 9, feet (2, metres) at Mount Tatamailau (Tata Mailau) in the centre of a high plateau.
Australia is the country's southern neighbour, separated by the Timor Sea. The country's size is about 15, square kilometres 5, sq mi. East Timor was colonised by Portugal in the 16th century and was known as Portuguese Timor until 28 Novemberwhen the Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor Fretilin declared the territory's independence. Nine days later, it was invaded and occupied by the Indonesian military ; it was declared Indonesia's 27th province the following year.
The Indonesian occupation of East Timor was characterised by a highly violent, decades-long conflict between separatist groups especially Fretilin and the Indonesian military. Infollowing the United Nations -sponsored act of self-determinationIndonesia relinquished control of the territory.
As Timor-Lesteit became the first new sovereign state of the 21st century on 20 May and joined the United Nations  and the Community of Portuguese What are the major languages of east timor Countries. In Indonesian, the country is called Timor Timurthereby using the Portuguese name for the island followed by the word for "east", as adjectives in Indonesian are put after the noun.
Cultural remains at Jerimalai on the eastern tip of East Timor have been dated to 42, years ago, making that location one of the oldest known sites of modern human activity in Maritime Southeast Asia. The first is described by anthropologists as people of the Veddo - Australoid type. Around BC, a second migration brought Melanesians. The earlier Veddo-Australoid peoples withdrew at this time to the mountainous interior.
Finally, proto-Malays arrived from south China and north Indochina. Timorese origin myths tell of ancestors who sailed around the eastern end of Timor arriving on land in the south. Some stories recount Timorese ancestors journeying from the Malay Peninsula or the Minangkabau highlands of Sumatra. The Portuguese established outposts in Timor and Maluku.
Effective European occupation of a small part of present-day East Timor began in when the city of Dili was founded and the colony of Portuguese Timor declared. For the Portuguese, East Timor remained little more than a neglected trading post until the late nineteenth century, with minimal investment in infrastructure, health, and education.
Sandalwood continued to be the main export crop with coffee exports becoming significant in the mid-nineteenth century. At the beginning of the twentieth century, a faltering home economy prompted the Portuguese to extract greater wealth from its colonies, which was met with East Timorese resistance. Portuguese Timor had been a place of exile for political and social opponents deported from the metropolis since the late nineteenth century.
Among them how to make an ipad app large proportion were members of the anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist movement, which until the Second World War was the most influential of the left-wing movements in Portugal. The main waves of deportations to Timor were in, and Some of the activists continued their resistance even in exile. After World War II, the remaining exiles were pardoned and allowed to return. During World War IIfirst the Allies and later the Japanese occupied Dili, and the mountainous interior of the colony became the scene of what does ldh mean in medical terms guerrilla campaign, known as the Battle of Timor.
Waged by East Timorese volunteers and Allied forces against the Japanese, the struggle resulted in the deaths of between 40, and 70, East Timorese civilians. Following the Portuguese revolutionPortugal effectively abandoned its colony in Timor and civil war between East Timorese political parties broke out in Fearing a communist state within the Indonesian archipelago, the Indonesian military launched an invasion of East Timor in December Indonesia's occupation of East Timor was marked by violence and brutality.
A detailed statistical report prepared for the Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor cited a minimum of how to find the y intersept, conflict-related deaths in the period —, namely, approximately 18, killings and 84, "excess" deaths from hunger and illness, with an estimated figure based on Portuguese, Indonesian and Catholic Church data of approximatelydeaths.
The Dili Massacre was a turning point for the independence cause and what is rx and tx East Timor solidarity movement grew in Portugal, the Philippines, Australia, and other Western countries.
A clear vote for independence was met with a punitive campaign of violence by East Timorese pro-integration militia supported by elements of the Indonesian military. Inthe United Nations sent in security forces to restore order when unrest and factional fighting forced 15 percent of the populationpeople to flee their homes. In FebruaryRamos-Horta was critically injured in an attempted assassination.
Australian reinforcements were immediately sent to help keep order. The United Nations ended its peacekeeping mission on 31 December The head of state of East Timor is the President of the Republicwho is elected by popular vote for a five-year term. Although the President's executive powers are somewhat limited, he or she does have the power to appoint the Prime Minister and veto government legislation.
Following elections, the President usually appoints the leader of the majority party what is a bombardier q400 aircraft coalition as Prime Minister of East Timor and the cabinet on the proposal of the latter. As head of governmentthe Prime Minister presides over the cabinet. The unicameral East Timorese parliament is the National Parliament or Parlamento Nacionalthe members of which are elected by popular vote to a five-year term.
The number of seats can vary from a minimum of fifty-two to a maximum of sixty-five. The East Timorese constitution was modelled on that of Portugal. The country is still in the process of building its administration and governmental institutions. The National Police of East Timor or PNTL is the what are the major languages of east timor police force of East Timor, established in May by the United Nationsbefore sovereignty was passed to the new state, with a mandate to provide security and maintain law and order throughout the country, and to enable the rapid development of a credible, professional and impartial police service.
East Timor is divided into thirteen municipalities, which in turn are subdivided into 65 administrative posts, sucos villagesand 2, aldeias hamlets. Articles 5 and 71 of the constitution provide that Oecusse be governed by a special administrative policy and economic regime.
How long to bake fillet fish Timor what is that bird sound a full member state of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries CPLPalso known as the Lusophone Commonwealth, an international organisation and political association of Lusophone nations across four continents. In each of those nations, Portuguese is an official language.
The F-FDTL was established in February and comprised two small infantry battalions, a small naval component, and several supporting units. This overlap has led to tensions between the services, which have been exacerbated by poor morale and lack of discipline within the F-FDTL. The F-FDTL's problems came to a head in when almost half the force was dismissed following protests over discrimination and poor conditions.
The F-FDTL is being rebuilt with foreign assistance and has drawn up a long-term force development plan. Since the discovery of petroleum in the Timor Sea in the s, there have been disputes surrounding the rights to ownership and exploitation of the resources situated in a part of the Timor Sea known as the Timor Gapwhich is the area of the Timor Sea which lies outside the territorial boundaries of the nations to the north and south of the Timor Sea.
After the declaration of East Timor's nationhood inthe terms of the Timor Gap Treaty were abandoned and negotiations commenced between Australia and East Timor, culminating in the Timor Sea Treaty. Australia's territorial claim extended to the bathymetric axis the line of greatest sea-bed depth at the Timor Trough. It overlapped East Timor's own territorial claim, which followed the former colonial power Portugal and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea in claiming that the dividing line should be midway between the two countries.
This is known as the Australia—East Timor spying scandal. The total land size is 14, km 2 5, sq mi. East Timor has an exclusive economic zone of 70, km 2 27, sq mi. Much of the country is mountainous, and its highest point is Tatamailau also known as Mount Ramelau at 2, metres 9, ft. It is characterised by distinct rainy and dry seasons. The capital, largest city, and main port is Dili, and the second-largest city is the eastern town of Baucau.
It hosts a number of unique plant and animal species and is sparsely populated. East Timor is home to the Timor and Wetar deciduous forests ecoregion. The economy of East Timor is a market economywhich used to depend upon exports of a few commodities such as coffeemarblepetroleumand sandalwood. East Timor now has revenue from offshore oil and gas reserves, but little of it has been spent on the development what are danielle steel books about villages, which still rely on subsistence farming.
The country's economy is dependent on government spending and, to a lesser extent, assistance from foreign donors. According to data gathered in the census, The country fared particularly poorly in the "registering property", "enforcing contracts" and "resolving insolvency" categories, ranking last worldwide in all three.
NRI is an indicator for determining the development level of a country's information and communication technologies. The Portuguese colonial administration granted concessions to the Australia-bound Oceanic Exploration Corporation to develop petroleum and natural gas deposits in the waters southeast of Timor. However, this was curtailed by the Indonesian invasion in There are no patent laws in East Timor.
A railway system has been proposed but the current government has yet to approve the proposal due to lack of funds and expertise.
Tourism is still of minor importance in East Timor. Inthe country was visited by 75, tourists. The government decided to invest in the expansion of the international airport in Dili.
Negative factors for tourists include roads in poor condition, mainly in the interior of the country. East Timor recorded a population of 1, in its census. The word Maubere formerly used by the Portuguese to refer to native East Timorese and often employed as synonymous with the illiterate and uneducated, was adopted by Fretilin as a term of pride. The main tribes of predominantly Papuan origin include the Bunak 84,in the central interior of Timor island; the Fataluku 40,at the eastern tip of the island near Lospalos ; and the Makasae 70,toward the eastern end of the island.
There is a small Chinese minority, most of whom are Hakka. East Timor's two official languages are Portuguese and Tetum. English and Indonesian are sometimes used. The census found that the most commonly spoken mother tongues were Tetum Prasa mother tongue for Other indigenous languages accounted for Under Indonesian rulethe use of Portuguese was banned and only Indonesian was allowed to be used in government offices, schools and public business.
It is now being taught and promoted with the help of Brazil, Portugal, and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries. According to the observatory of the Portuguese language, the East Timorese literacy rate was Portuguese is recovering as it is now been made the main official language of Timor, and is being taught in most schools.
East Timor's adult literacy rate in was The country's main university is the National University of East Timor. There are also four colleges.
Since independence, both Indonesian and Tetum have lost ground as media of instructionwhile Portuguese has increased: in only 8.
The Philippines has sent Filipino teachers to East Timor to teach Englishso as to facilitate a program between the two countries, under which deserving East Timorese nationals with English language skills will be granted university scholarships in the Philippines. According to the census, The number of churches has grown from in to over in with Church membership having grown considerably under Indonesian rule as PancasilaIndonesia's state how to put stockings on a garter belt, requires all citizens to believe in one God and does not recognise traditional beliefs.
East Timor is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania known as Democratic Republic of chesapeakecharge.com country comprises the eastern half of the island of Timor and the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco. The first inhabitants are thought to be descendant of Australoid and Melanesian peoples. The Portuguese began to trade with Timor by the early 16th century and colonised it throughout the mid. East Bird’s Head-Sentani (8) Mairasi (3) Sepik (54) Zamucoan (2) East Geelvink Bay (12) Mapudungu (2) Sign language () Zaparoan (5) East New Britain (7) Browse by. Countries; Language Names; Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Twenty-fourth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Apr 20, · Timor comes from the Malay word for "east"; the island of Timor is part of the Malay Archipelago and is the largest and easternmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands; the district of Oecussi is an exclave separated from Timor-Leste proper by Indonesia; Timor-Leste has the unique distinction of being the only Asian country located completely in the.
Disaster officials warn that the threat isn't over yet. Multiple disasters caused by torrential rains in eastern Indonesia have left dozens of people dead. Scores of people have been killed in Indonesia and neighboring East Timor after Cyclone Seroja battered the region over the weekend, officials said on Tuesday.
At least people are confirmed dead so far. Indonesia's disaster agency revised down its total death toll to 86 from a previous , citing miscommunication with local agencies, according to news agency AFP. In East Timor, another 34 have been officially listed dead. Torrential rains triggered massive floods and landslides on Sunday that devastated communities in a remote cluster of islands in eastern Indonesia as well as the half-island nation of East Timor.
The death toll could rise further, with the Indonesian disaster management agency reporting that more than people are still missing. Rescuers are having a hard time searching for survivors in hard-hit areas due to electricity outages and roads being blocked by debris. More than 8, people in Indonesia have been displaced by the extreme weather, with many fleeing to emergency shelters. While meteorologists expect the cyclone to move southwest away from Indonesia later on Tuesday, officials fear more damage could come.
Already struggling to accommodate thousands of evacuees, local authorities are also concerned about curbing spread of the coronavirus. Indonesia and East Timor frequently experience natural disasters. Indonesia is the largest island nation in the world; its rugged terrain complicates reaching people in need after storms and heavy swells.
Large parts of the region have also been subject to deforestation , eliminating a major natural barrier against floods. With its approximately active volcanoes, Indonesia is also located on the Pacific Ring of Fire , the most geologically active zone on earth. Mount Agung in Bali's northeast erupted several times over the weekend, coating nearby resorts and villages in a thin layer of ash.
Dark gray clouds spewing from the peak could be seen moving away from the capital, Denpasar, and toward the neighboring island of Lombok. As night fell, a deep orange glow from the crater lit up part of an ash cloud that reached up to 6, meters 19, feet into the sky. Mount Agung started showing signs of activity in September, prompting authorities to raise the volcano's emergency status to the highest level and evacuate , people living nearby.
The alert was later downgraded on October 29 after a decrease in activity. Bali's surf beaches, temples and lush forests attract about 5 million visitors each year, making the island Indonesia's top tourist destination. But Made Sugiri, from the Mahagiri Panoramic Resort, says tourist numbers have been down in recent months. Indonesia's disaster agency says Bali is "still safe" for tourists, noting in a statement that the emergency status for Agung remained at level 3, one below the highest, over the weekend.
Despite a number of eruptions, it said volcanic activity remained relatively stable. It was a different story for the aviation alert status, however, which was lifted on Sunday from orange to red — its highest level.
Although many flights went ahead as planned, hundreds of people were stranded by cancellations. Lombok's airport had to be shut down, but officials said Bali's main airport would remain open for as long as it was still possible for planes to skirt the ash cloud.
About 25, people fled their homes during the latest eruptions. Authorities have warned anyone still inside a 7. Mount Agung is one of more than active volcanoes in Indonesia.
Its last major eruption in killed more than a thousand people. Volcanologists described the renewed activity on Saturday as a phreatic eruption, with the expulsion of smoke caused by the heating and expansion of groundwater. On Sunday, officials said things may have progressed to a magmatic eruption, which results in the spewing of ash. Soldiers and police are distributing masks to people in nearby villages and resorts to protect them from ash.
Thousands of Indonesians have been forced to flee as Mount Ili Lewotolok pumps ash and noxious gas into the air. The volcano is one of three to erupt recently, prompting panic among local residents.
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News Indonesia, East Timor: Disaster death toll rises Torrential downpours sparked massive floods and landslides on Sunday, with thousands of homes submerged in the two countries of Southeast Asia. Dozens still missing Torrential rains triggered massive floods and landslides on Sunday that devastated communities in a remote cluster of islands in eastern Indonesia as well as the half-island nation of East Timor.
Flash floods in Indonesia and East Timor. Indonesia: Thousands evacuated as volcano erupts Thousands of Indonesians have been forced to flee as Mount Ili Lewotolok pumps ash and noxious gas into the air.
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